In the Bothnian Bay, roughly two-thirds of the species are freshwater. There are several cargo and passenger ferries that operate on the Baltic Sea, such as Scandlines, Silja Line, Polferries, the Viking Line, Tallink, and Superfast Ferries. At the time of the last great subsidence, in glacial times, an arm of the sea extended across Sweden, submerging a great part of the littoral up to the Gulf of Bothnia, and including the Plies period the this of themnorthe and Baltic were s fg ficiently salt for oysters to flourish. First mentions of amber deposits on the South Coast of the Baltic Sea date back to the 12th century. The 1974 Convention entered into force on 3 May 1980. The North Sea has an extensive history of maritime commerce, resource extraction, and warfare between among the people and nations on its coasts.. Archaeological evidence shows the migration of people and technology between continental Europe, Britain, and Scandinavia throughout prehistory.The earliest records of Roman explorations of the sea begin in 12 BC. In the next stage of its history the Baltic is transformed by further elevation into a vast freshwater lake, the Ancylus lake of G. de Geer (named from the remains of the mollusc Ancylus fluviatilis ), which is supposed to have covered an area of about 220,000 sq. The water exchange between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea involves many processes, some more investigated and understood than others. The rating of mean discharges differs from the ranking of hydrological lengths (from the most distant source to the sea) and the rating of the nominal lengths. Freezing begins in the northern extremities of the Gulf of Bothnia typically in the middle of November, reaching the open waters of the Bothnian Bay in early January. The Baltic Sea flows out through the Danish straits; however, the flow is complex. Also Credner, Die Entstehung der Ostsee (Leipzig, 1895); G. de Geer; Om Skandinaviens niveif orandringar under quartarperioden (Stockholm, 1888); R. Sieger, Seeenschwankungen and Strandverschiebungen in Skandinavien (Berlin, 1893); O. Pettersson, "Review of Swedish Hydrographic Research," Scottish Geographical Magazine (1894) N. Ekholm, Om klimatets andringar i geologisk och historisk tid.  The bordering countries have also traditionally exported lumber, wood tar, flax, hemp and furs by ship across the Baltic.  Some Swedish historians believe the name derives from the god Baldr of Nordic mythology. The Gulf of Riga lies between the Latvian capital city of Riga and the Estonian island of Saaremaa. (0.37 ft.), at Travemunde, and 13.9 cm. and Ger. The sea has a surface area of 377,000 square kilometers (146,000 square miles). The sinking of the Wilhelm Gustloff remains the worst maritime disaster in history, killing (very roughly) 9,000 people. It ended only after the collapse of the Communist regimes in Central and Eastern Europe in the late 1980s. The Northern Baltic Sea lies between the Stockholm area, southwestern Finland, and Estonia. CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (, Interview of Finnish planetary geomorphologist Jarmo Korteniemi (at 1:10:45) on, Red List Benthic Invertebrate Expert Group (2013), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Helsinki Convention on the Protection of the Marine Environment of the Baltic Sea Area, the last European state to convert to Christianity, List of cities and towns around the Baltic Sea, "Swedish Chemicals Agency (KEMI): The BaltSens Project – The sensitivity of the Baltic Sea ecosystems to hazardous compounds", "The History of Russian Amber, Part 1: The Beginning", Chemical Weapon Time Bomb Ticks in the Baltic Sea, "Sturmfluten in der südlichen Ostsee (Westlicher und mittlerer Teil)", "Sturmfluten an der Ostseeküste – eine vergessene Gefahr? The northern part of the Gulf of Bothnia is frozen every winter. This page was last edited on 28 January 2021, at 18:30. The westernmost part of the Baltic Sea is the Bay of Kiel. This creates a vertical stratification of the water column, a halocline, that represents a barrier to the exchange of oxygen and nutrients, and fosters completely separate maritime environments. Due to the difference in salinity, by salinity permeation principle, a sub-surface layer of more saline water moving in the opposite direction brings in 475 km3 (114 cu mi) per year. The subsequent upheaval restricted direct communication with the open sea to the Danish channels, and the Baltic waters became fresher: the oyster disappeared, but a number of cold salt-water fishes and crustaceans, and even seals, became acclimatized. Since 1980 it has been much less frequent, although a very large inflow occurred in 2014.. Depending on location Mecklenburg and Bay of Lübeck Warsaw Pact Peter the Great northern War brought Russia to the Sea! Kilometer ( 990 miles ) and still has extensive salt mines Klaus-R. Böhme and! 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